Publication 512 Women on Stamps
April 2003


Sending a powerful message requires a powerful tool. And the mail is one of the most powerful - and easily accessible - communication tools available today. A single postage stamp is the only investment you need.

Since the first postage stamps were issued more than 150 years ago, just about every one of them has also carried a message about our shared heritage, our diverse culture and the people and events that have helped build a great nation.

Women have had a strong and lasting impact on American history. The Postal Service is proud to honor their influence and achievements through our stamp program. They are artists, abolitionists, national leaders and physicians. They are war heroes, pioneers, authors and performers.

They are American painter and printmaker Mary Cassatt, a home-grown and world-renowned Impressionist; Harriet Tubman, who personally led over 300 individuals from slavery to freedom; Patsy Cline, whose plaintive voice personifies the sound of country music; and Eleanor Roosevelt, the vocal and progressive First Lady, who became a champion for social reform and human rights.

For more than a century, since 1893, when a woman first appeared on a United States postage stamp, the Postal Service has proudly honored women and their achievements. We will continue to tell their story, and the story of America, through our stamp program.

The United States Postal Service has bound the nation together through its personal and business communications for more than two centuries. We have continually evolved to serve a growing nation more efficiently and effectively - without operational subsidies. And we continue that process today, as we transform ourselves to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

John E. Potter
Postmaster General

Queen Isabella
Queen Isabella’s special patronage of Christopher Columbus made possible his first voyage to America in 1492 and opened the way for new discoveries and worldwide trade.
Issued: 1893 and 1992

Martha Washington
The 8-cent stamp portraying Martha Washington was the first U.S. postage stamp honoring an American woman. As the wife of George Washington, the first president of the United States, she was the first “first lady” of our country. Although she would have preferred a quiet family life on their farmland, she often accompanied and supported her husband and his troops in the field during the American Revolution, and then served graciously as the official hostess for the country during the first presidential administration.
Issued: 1902, 1923, and 1938

(ca. 1595-1617)
Pocahontas was a princess of the Algonquian Indians in the area around the settlement of Jamestown, Virginia. According to legend, she saved the life of Captain John Smith after he had been captured by members of her tribe. Pocahontas later married the Englishman John Rolfe, and by these and other actions, she helped to pacify the relationships between the people of the New and Old Worlds.
Issued: 1907

Mothers of America
Issued in tribute to the mothers of the nation, this stamp replicates the famous painting often called “Whistler’s Mother” - its actual title is Arrangement in Gray and Black, No. 1: Portrait of the Artist’s Mother, by James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Issued: 1934

Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony was a reformer and feminist who spent more than 50 years making major contributions to the woman suffrage cause, despite continuous opposition. Although she did not live to see the success of this movement, in 1920 the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution ensured that women would not be denied the right to vote as U.S. citizens because of their sex. In honor of her efforts for this cause, the 19th amendment has often been called the “Anthony amendment.”
Issued: 1936 and 1955

Virginia Dare
Virginia Dare was the first child born of English parents in the New World, in the settlement of Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. But nothing else is known about the rest of her life - or those of the settlement’s other members, who are known as the “Lost Colony.” When supply ships arrived at the settlement several years later, the only trace of the colonists was the word “Croatoan” carved on a tree - to this day, their fate is uncertain. Virginia Dare symbolizes both the hope and the uncertainty that all pioneers and immigrants face in new lands.
Issued: 1937

Louisa May Alcott
Louisa May Alcott is best known for her book Little Women, a story of four sisters that is loosely based on her own family life. Another of her published works is Hospital Sketches, a recollection of her experiences as a nurse in the Civil War. Alcott also was engaged in many social reforms of the day, such as abolition, temperance, and woman suffrage.
Issued: 1940

Frances E. Willard
Frances E. Willard was a renowned and successful American educator, reformer, lecturer, and suffragist. She helped found the Women’s Christian Temperance Union and served as its president from 1879 to 1898. In 1905, Willard was the first woman to be honored with a statue in the National Statuary Hall of the U.S. Capitol.
Issued: 1940

Jane Addams
Jane Addams was the founder of Chicago’s Hull House, which was part of the settlement house movement that provided much-needed social services in poor and working-class neighborhoods. She also was the first president of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, serving from 1919 to 1929. For her efforts, Addams was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, the first American woman to receive this honor.
Issued: 1940

Progress of Women
Issued in the centennial year of the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York, this stamp pictures Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902), a pioneer reformer for woman suffrage and women’s rights; Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947), a suffrage reformer and first president of the League of Women Voters; and Lucretia Mott (1793-1880), an abolitionist, an early advocate for women’s rights, and an organizer of the 1848 convention.
Issued: 1948

Clara Barton
Serving as a nurse during the Civil War, Clara Barton became known as the “angel of the battlefield” for her efforts to care for the wounded of both sides. In 1881 she founded the American Red Cross, becoming its first president and serving from 1882 to 1904.
Issued: 1948 and 1995

Gold Star Mothers
During World War II, many families displayed a banner with a blue star for each family member serving in the armed forces and a gold star for any member who had paid the supreme sacrifice in the war. Accordingly, the term “gold star mother” referred to any woman who had lost a child in defense of the country. These stamps were issued in tribute to all those mothers and the sacrifices they and their children had made.
Issued: 1948 and 1993

Juliette Gordon Low
In 1912 in Savannah, Georgia, Juliette Gordon Low started the organization that would become the Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. She was enthusiastic, energetic, and totally committed to the group, wearing her Girl Scout uniform and promoting the group wherever she went. In 1979, Low was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame.
Issued: 1948

Moina Michael
Moina Michael is the person most responsible for establishing the symbol of the red poppy as a memorial to those who served in World War I. As a volunteer for the YMCA Overseas War Workers in 1918, she was inspired by a poem describing poppies growing on a battlefield cemetery in France, and she promoted this symbol to many national organizations. In 1920, the American Legion adopted this symbol, and with the help of the American Legion Auxiliary, disabled veterans made and sold silk poppies to raise funds for their support and rehabilitation. For her efforts to help and honor veterans, Michael received several tributes from the American Legion and her home state of Georgia.
Issued: 1948

Betsy Ross
Legend states that Betsy Ross made the first American flag having the familiar stars and stripes design. Whether one views this legend as fact or fable, historical accounts prove that Ross, a Philadelphia seamstress and acquaintance of George Washington, was a patriot of the new country and did indeed provide some flags to the government. There are only a few locations in the nation where, by Executive Order, the U.S. flag flies 24 hours a day - the Betsy Ross House is one of those locations.
Issued: 1952

Women in Military Service
Nearly two million women have served in the U.S. Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard with dedication, courage, and patriotism in times of conflict and peace. Women have served in defense of our nation since the American Revolution and they continue to do so today. The 1997 stamp was issued at the dedication of the Women in Military Service for America Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia.
Issued: 1952 and 1997

(ca. 1788-1812)
Sacagawea was the only woman to accompany the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804-1806 through the Pacific Northwest. Being a young woman with a child, she was a sign to the American Indian tribes that the exploring party had peaceful intentions. But Sacagawea also provided invaluable assistance in interpreting and trading with tribes, finding food and medicinal herbs, understanding the landscape, and finding usable trails. In his journal, Clark praised her for contributing fully to the expedition’s success.
Issued: 1954 and 1994

The American Woman
This stamp honors the countless contributions and achievements that American women have made in civic affairs, education, industry, and the arts, as well as their vital role in the home by providing guidance, strength, support, and commitment to American youth.
Issued: 1960

Camp Fire Girls
Founded in 1910, Camp Fire Girls sought to promote the health and spirit of girls, often through outdoor activities such as hiking and camping that traditionally were not available to them. The organization also advocated other nontraditional ideas such as measuring and creating standards for women’s work, promoting teamwork among girls, and preparing women for new economic conditions. It officially opened its membership to boys in 1975 and is now known as Camp Fire USA.
Issued: 1960 and 1985

The profession of nursing has always provided a crucial function in the medical community and to society as a whole. Nurses bring care and comfort to the sick and the recuperating, they nurture and support everyone from infants to the aged, and they assist doctors in analyzing and treating patients and performing operations. Nurses also perform a variety of other beneficial services including research, health education, and patient consultation.
Issued: 1961

Girl Scouts USA
Formed in 1912 and originally known as the Girl Guides, the Girl Scouts of the USA has used a variety of outdoor activities to promote self-reliance and resourcefulness among young girls. Since its inception, the organization has helped more than 50 million girls learn new skills, gain confidence in themselves, share camaraderie with their peers, and provide service to others. (See also Juliette Gordon Low, page 5.)

Issued: 1962, 1987, and 1998

Amelia Earhart
Amelia Earhart achieved many “firsts” as a female pilot - she was the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic and across the U.S. continent (both in 1932), and across the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to California (1935). For her trans-Atlantic flight, Congress awarded her the Distinguished Flying Cross. In addition to her aviation career, Earhart also served as a nurse during World War I and as a women’s career counselor at Purdue University in the mid-1930s. Her achievements were inspiring not only to women but to all of America struggling through the Depression. Her mysterious disappearance in the Pacific while attempting to fly around the world in 1937 seems only to add to her reputation as an adventurous trailblazer.
Issued: 1963

Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt was one of the most influential people of the 20th century, not only during her years as the country’s “first lady” when her husband, Franklin D. Roosevelt, was president, but also before and after. During World War I, she worked for several organizations that provided assistance to service personnel, and after the war, she was active in the League of Women Voters and served as a translator for the International Congress of Working Women. When her husband was stricken with polio, she helped him in his rehabilitation and encouraged and assisted him in continuing his political career. While in the White House, she held press conferences and wrote a newspaper column, helped develop several New Deal social programs, promoted improved race relations, and visited overseas troops in World War II. After the war, she served the country for many years in the United Nations, chairing the U.N. Human Rights Commission.
Issued: 1963, 1984, and 1998

This stamp was issued to salute American women for “making a house a home.” The stamp also commemorates the 50th anniversary of the 1914 Smith-Lever Act, which helped improve home life throughout America by providing home economics experts to advise women on better ways to feed and clothe their families.
Issued: 1964

General Federation of Women’s Clubs
This stamp was issued in recognition of the 75 years of service of the General Federation of Women’s Club. Founded in 1890, the organization is comprised of and provides support to community-based volunteer women’s clubs dedicated to community service. The clubs’ areas of activity include education, conservation, the arts, home life, international affairs, public affairs, and any special needs affecting the community. With more than one million members worldwide, it is one of the world’s largest women’s volunteer service organizations.
Issued: 1966

Mary Cassatt
Considered the greatest American female artist of her time, Mary Cassatt is famous for her paintings that capture the intimacy between mother and child in simple yet fresh moments. Born to a wealthy Pennsylvania family, she spent most of her life in France working closely with Impressionist artists including Edgar Degas, Paul Monet, and Pierre Renoir. Cassatt created the mural called Modern Woman for the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. She also helped shape American art collections by influencing several patrons to purchase works from newer artists as well as the traditional masters. Cassatt was depicted on a stamp in 1988, and six other stamps show reproductions of her paintings The Boating Party, Breakfast in Bed, Young Mother, Children Playing on the Beach, On a Balcony, and Child in a Straw Hat.
Issued: 1966, 1988, 1998, and 2003

Lucy Stone
Lucy Stone was one of the earliest and most influential advocates of women’s rights in America, as well as a staunch proponent of abolition. She was the first woman in America to keep her own name after marriage, and other women who followed this practice were sometimes called “Lucy Stoners.” Claiming “taxation without representation,” Stone was also the first woman to refuse to pay property taxes because she was not allowed to vote. She helped organize the national women’s rights convention in 1850, the American Equal Rights Association in 1866, and the American Woman Suffrage Association in 1869. In 1870 Stone also founded Woman’s Journal, a weekly suffrage newspaper, and later became its editor.
Issued: 1968

Grandma Moses
One of America’s best-known and best-loved artists, Anna Mary Robertson “Grandma” Moses took up painting in her seventies, after she had retired from a life of farmwork. A self-taught artist, she produced about 1,600 paintings, including several after her 100th birthday. Her works depict the landscapes and traditional activities of rural life, often evoking memories of simpler times while nurturing hope for the future. This stamp reproduces her 1951 painting July Fourth.
Issued: 1969

19th Amendment
In 1848, at the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York, the delegates passed a resolution seeking the right to vote for women. For more than 70 years, suffragists campaigned vigorously for this right, which was finally realized when Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution on August 26, 1920. On the 50th anniversary of ratification, the Postal Service issued the “Woman Suffrage” stamp in Adams, Massachusetts, the birthplace of suffragist leader Susan B. Anthony. It also issued a 32-cent stamp on the 75th anniversary of ratification, as well as another stamp honoring the amendment in its Celebrate the Century™ series.
Issued: 1970, 1995, and 1998

Emily Dickinson
Emily Dickinson is considered the greatest American female poet of the 19th century - and one of the finest and most influential American poets ever. But only a few of her 1,700 poems were published in her lifetime, and those anonymously and without her consent. Her style of using short phrases set off with dashes was unconventional and complex. Her themes focused on intense extremes of life and death, grief and ecstasy, love and loneliness, religious salvation and sensual romance. Although Dickinson lived a secluded life, rarely leaving her house after her late twenties, her powerful poetry has touched generations of readers.
Issued: 1971

Willa Cather
Willa Cather is one of the most distinguished American novelists of the 20th century. Setting many of her works in the Great Plains and the American Southwest, Cather writes of the conflict between the frontier pioneers and the emerging modern world, of the clash between independent, adventurous spirits and the restrictions of urbanization and materialism. She imbues her characters, including many women, with the strength and determination needed to face despair and disillusionment. Cather won the Pulitzer Prize in 1923 for her novel One of Ours, about a young Nebraskan in World War I, and in 1930 she won the Howells Medal from the American Academy of Arts and Letters for her 1927 novel Death Comes to the Archbishop. Some of Cather’s other acclaimed novels are A Lost Lady, My Antonia, The Song of the Lark, and O Pioneers!
Issued: 1973

Elizabeth Blackwell
In 1849, Elizabeth Blackwell became the first woman to receive a medical degree, graduating first in her class at Geneva Medical College in New York. She continued her education in Europe before returning to New York City, where she opened her own practice and also the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children, which had an all-female staff. Because women were having difficulty getting accepted to medical schools, she added the Woman’s Medical College of New York to the Infirmary in 1868, and in 1869 she founded a similar school in England. During the Civil War, she and her sister Emily, who was also a physician, helped create the U.S. Sanitary Commission, which trained nurses and cared for the wounded.
Issued: 1974

Sybil Ludington
Like Paul Revere before her, Sybil Ludington rode through the night to call the American militia to arms in defense of liberty. On April 26, 1777, the British attacked Danbury, Connecticut, burning the town and destroying the American army’s supplies. Sybil’s father was the commander of the local militia, and when he received word to organize his forces for battle, 16-year-old Sybil volunteered to ride all night to spread the alarm. In the dark, through rain and dense woods, over roads patrolled by British troops, loyalist sympathizers, and marauding highwaymen, Sybil successfully roused the countryside. Spurred by her heroic ride, the militia gathered at her father’s house by daybreak, marched on Danbury, and defeated the British.
Issued: 1975

International Women’s Year
The United Nations General Assembly designated 1975 as International Women’s Year, focusing on the themes of equality, development, and peace. Many events were held to promote women’s rights and to increase women’s participation in political activities and social issues in the community, the country, and the world. The Postal Service issued this stamp in Seneca Falls, New York, site of the first women’s rights convention in the United States.
Issued: 1975

Clara Maass
While serving as a nurse in Cuba during the Spanish-American War of 1898 and in the Philippines in 1899, Clara Maass saw firsthand the fatal effects of yellow fever, which killed more soldiers than combat did. During a second mission to Cuba, Maass volunteered for a medical experiment and allowed herself to be bitten by mosquitoes, which were suspected of transmitting the disease. At first, she recovered from a mild form of yellow fever, but after volunteering again to receive more bites, the illness proved fatal. Her unselfish sacrifice advanced medical science by helping to indicate how the disease was spread. In 1976, the centennial year of her birth, Maass was inducted into the American Nurses Association Hall of Fame and honored on a stamp by the Postal Service.
Issued: 1976

Even as civilians rather than soldiers, many Americans proved essential in the Revolutionary War by using their skills to support the struggle for independence. Women often worked as seamstresses, sewing flags, uniforms, blankets, and other equipment for troops in the field. Perhaps the most famous seamstress is Betsy Ross, but there were countless other women who contributed to victory by employing their craft for their country’s benefit. This stamp was one of four in a series called Skilled Hands for Independence.
Issued: 1977

Harriet Tubman
(ca. 1820-1913)
Born a slave, abolitionist Harriet Tubman earned the nickname “the Moses of her people” for helping over 300 slaves, including her own family members, escape to freedom on the famed Underground Railroad before and during the Civil War. She also served the Union Army as a spy, scout, and nurse. When she was in her eighties, she donated land and helped establish the Harriet Tubman Home, which provided assistance to aged and indigent African Americans. Tubman was the first African-American woman to be honored on a U.S. Postage stamp.
Issued: 1978 and 1995

Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins was the first female member of a presidential cabinet, serving as secretary of labor for Franklin D. Roosevelt from 1933 to 1945. She devoted her career to social reform and improving working conditions for Americans, serving on many commissions in New York City and New York state before heading the Labor Department. As the integral force behind the Social Security Act of 1935 and the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, Perkins helped set standards for minimum wages, working hours, worker safety, social security and unemployment benefits, and other labor issues.
Issued: 1980

Dolley Madison
Dolley Madison, the wife of President James Madison, is perhaps best known for saving Gilbert Stuart’s portrait of George Washington before the British burned the White House in 1814. While many others fled the city, she bravely stayed until the last possible moment to secure important government documents and other items, including the famous portrait. Madison is also well known for her gracious charm as a White House hostess, often soothing tensions during times of intense political differences.
Issued: 1980

Helen Keller
Anne Sullivan
With Anne Sullivan as her teacher and constant companion, Helen Keller overcame the challenge of blindness and deafness to show the world that people with disabilities can lead full lives, make outstanding contributions, and bring hope to everyone. After graduating from Radcliffe College, Keller devoted her life to helping others, writing and speaking on behalf of the disabled and on other social issues such as women’s rights and racial equality. In 1924, Keller and Sullivan started their association with the American Foundation for the Blind, serving together as counselors and advocates for the rest of their lives.
Issued: 1980

Edith Wharton
In 1921, Edith Wharton became the first woman to receive the Pulitzer Prize, awarded for her novel The Age of Innocence. In that work and many others, Wharton portrayed a monied, materialistic society whose conventions restricted and destroyed the desires of its members. Although best known as an American novelist, Wharton, who spent most of her adult life in France, also received the French Legion of Honor for her extensive work helping refugees and others during World War I.
Issued: 1980

Emily Bissell
Emily Bissell started the American tradition of using Christmas Seals to help fight lung diseases. When Bissell, an active social worker in Wilmington, Delaware, was asked in 1907 to help raise funds for a small facility aiding tuberculosis patients, she began a campaign based on the Danish practice of adding charity stamps to holiday greeting cards. Her efforts were so successful that the campaign was taken nationwide the next year, and Christmas Seals have been used every year since then to raise awareness and funds.
Issued: 1980

Blanche Stuart Scott
Introduced to flying in 1910, Blanche Stuart Scott is often credited with being the first woman to make a solo flight. But this first solo was unexpected - as a student pilot, she was attempting to taxi down the runway when a gust of wind made her airborne. Soon Scott joined the barnstorming circuit, performing as a daredevil pilot billed as the “Tomboy of the Air.” In 1912, she became the first female test pilot when she signed a contract to fly prototype aircraft. After World War II, while working for the U.S. Air Force Museum, Scott became one of the first women to fly in a jet.
Issued: 1980

Rachel Carson
Both an exacting scientist and an eloquent writer, Rachel Carson won the National Book Award in 1951 for The Sea Around Us. But in 1962 Carson shocked the world with her book Silent Spring, which touched off an international controversy over the deadly effects of pesticides. Entrancing readers with basic scientific information, the book remained a best-seller for more than a year. Her groundbreaking work against the government’s approval and use of harmful chemicals raised ecological consciousness and helped spark the environmental movement of the late 20th century.
Issued: 1981

Edna St. Vincent Millay
In 1923, Edna St. Vincent Millay became the first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for poetry. Born in Rockland, Maine, she began writing poetry early, and one of her poems, “Renascence,” won her a scholarship to Vassar College. Many of her poems celebrated the freedom of the bohemian lifestyle she led in New York City and Europe, and she mastered the traditional sonnet form. In the late 1930s, as the world lurched toward war, she wrote many poems decrying fascism and urging people and governments to rise against it.
Issued: 1981

Babe Zaharias
Mildred (“Babe”) Didrikson Zaharias was acclaimed by the Associated Press as the Woman Athlete of the 20th Century. She was an All-American basketball player from 1930 to 1932, leading her team to the national championship in 1931. In the 1932 Amateur Athletic Union championships, she placed first in six of ten events - thereby winning the team title by herself! - and at the Olympic Games that followed, she won two gold medals and a silver medal. Zaharias started her golfing career in 1933, and in the following 22 years, she helped found the Ladies Professional Golf Association and won 55 tournaments, including 17 in a row, 3 U.S. Women’s Opens, and the British Women’s Amateur. By competing against established norms for women, hurtling barriers, and triumphing over restrictive stereotypes, Zaharias was a leading women’s pioneer not just in sports but in society.
Issued: 1981

Ethel Barrymore
Known as the “first lady of the American theater,” Ethel Barrymore was one of several siblings who were renowned actors in the early 20th century. (Also pictured on the stamp are her two brothers, John and Lionel.) Continuing in a long line of entertainers, Barrymore performed on stage and radio and in films and television. To get her to star in a new play in 1927, a leading New York theatrical organization built a theatre and named it in her honor, and the Ethel Barrymore Theatre is still operating today. In 1944, she won an Academy Award for her performance in None but the Lonely Heart.
Issued: 1982

Dr. Mary Walker
Dr. Mary Walker was the first (and so far only) woman to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor, in 1865. After becoming the second woman in the U.S. to receive a medical degree, Walker volunteered for the Union Army during the Civil War, serving near the front lines as a field surgeon for several years. In addition to treating wounded soldiers, she often crossed the front lines to treat civilians also affected by the war. On one such occasion, she was captured by Confederates and spent four months as a prisoner of war. Walker devoted much of her life to advocating women’s rights, including dress reform - at a time when most clothing for women was uncomfortable and physically restrictive, she wore trousers. In 1917 Walker’s medal was one of more than 900 that the U.S. Army rescinded, but she defiantly refused to return it. In 1977 the award was reinstated.
Issued: 1982

Dorothea Dix
Social and political activist Dorothea Dix was a crusader for the mentally ill and for prison reform. After being a teacher for 20 years, Dix campaigned to improve the appalling conditions in prisons, which at the time housed the mentally ill as well as criminals. Dix lobbied many state legislatures to provide better care for prison inmates and to build hospitals devoted to the mentally ill. She was directly responsible for founding more than 30 mental hospitals throughout the country, and more were established because of the awareness she raised. During the Civil War, Dix served as the Union Army’s superintendent of women nurses and helped to markedly improve the care provided to wounded soldiers.
Issued: 1983

Pearl Buck
Pearl Buck was the first American woman to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature. Buck was the daughter of American missionaries to China, and she spent most of her first 40 years in that country. It was the setting for her famous novel The Good Earth, which was the first book in a trilogy about the travails and successes of a Chinese farm family. This novel earned her the Pulitzer Prize in 1932 and the Howells Medal in 1935, and she won the Nobel Prize in 1938 for the trilogy as well as for biographies of her parents. When she moved to the U.S. in 1934, Buck became active in social and political causes, working to improve East-West relations and creating foundations to help children in need.
Issued: 1983

Lillian M. Gilbreth
A pioneer in industrial engineering and scientific management, Lillian Gilbreth, together with her husband and business partner, Frank, developed theories and practices to increase both labor efficiency and worker satisfaction in industry as well as at home. In 1930, Gilbreth headed the President’s Emergency Committee for Unemployment Relief, helping industry and the workforce overcome the effects of the Depression. Gilbreth was the first woman elected to the National Academy of Engineering and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Her life as a professional and mother of 12 is celebrated in the book and movie Cheaper By the Dozen.
Issued: 1984

Big Sisters
In 1905, an organization of women in New York City reached out to young girls whose personal development was put at risk because of poverty, inadequate education, delinquency, or other trials. The women developed one-on-one relationships with the girls to build friendship and trust leading to hope and better opportunities. Over the years similar groups were established in many communities, and in 1970 Big Sisters International was chartered. In 1977, it merged with a similar organization directed at boys to form Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America, which now has more than 500 affiliated agencies nationwide.
Issued: 1985

Abigail Adams
Even had she not been the wife of one U.S. president and the mother of another, Abigail Adams would probably still be remembered today as one of the American colonial era’s most learned women and leading female letter writers. Self-taught from her youth through her own avid reading, Adams reveals her keen intelligence and expressive writing style in the long years of correspondence with John Adams, her husband and one of the country’s founding fathers. The letters convey strong support for women’s education and legal rights, opposition to slavery, insights into the political ideals of the times, and descriptions of the daily struggles of running a household and farm during the Revolution. And because her letters also show the strong bonds of affection between life-long companions, one of them was chosen as the background for the 55-cent “Love Letter” stamp.
Issued: 1985 and 2001

Mary McLeod Bethune
Mary McLeod Bethune was a noted educator and social activist. In 1904 she founded the school that eventually became Bethune-Cookman College, serving as its president for almost 40 years. Bethune also founded the National Council of Negro Women in 1935 to advance issues affecting African Americans. Bethune served several U.S. presidents as an advisor on issues such as child welfare, and in 1936 she became the first African-American woman to head a federal agency when President Roosevelt appointed her as a director of the National Youth Administration. In 1945, at the request of President Truman, she attended the United Nations organization meeting.
Issued: 1985

Sojourner Truth
(ca. 1797-1883)
One of the most inspirational and widely known African Americans of the 19th century was Sojourner Truth. She was born Isabella Bomefree (also spelled “Baumfree”) about 1797, a slave in New York, but she received her freedom in 1828. In the 1830s, she became involved in evangelical movements, and in 1843 she changed her name to Sojourner Truth and began traveling and preaching. Her autobiography, The Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave, was published in 1850, and her speeches against slavery and for woman suffrage drew large crowds. In 1864, President Abraham Lincoln received her at the White House, and from 1864 to 1868 she worked with the National Freedmen’s Relief Association to advise former slaves as they started new lives.
Issued: 1986

Belva Ann Lockwood
Attorney and activist Belva Ann Lockwood was a pioneer in securing many legal rights for women. Even before receiving her law degree in 1873 (she was one of the first women to earn one), Lockwood drafted a bill that Congress passed in 1872 providing female government employees with equal pay for equal work. She also drafted the 1879 legislation allowing women to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court, and then became the first woman to do so. In 1903, when Congress received statehood bills for Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma, Lockwood wrote amendments to the bills granting voting rights to women in those states. She also was the first woman to campaign for the presidency, running for the National Equal Rights Party in 1884 and 1888.
Issued: 1986

Margaret Mitchell
Margaret Mitchell wrote only one novel, but Gone With the Wind became a publishing phenomenon, setting sales records immediately and for decades to come. It won her the Pulitzer Prize in 1937 and is considered one of the finest novels of the 20th century. Before writing her famous book, Mitchell was one of the first women to work as a reporter and columnist for the South’s largest newspaper, the Atlanta Journal. After winning worldwide acclaim, she spent most of her time on philanthropic causes, such as funding libraries in her home state of Georgia, sponsoring scholarships at Morehouse College, and working for integration and improved race relations.
Issued: 1986

Mary Lyon
Mary Lyon was the foremost person responsible for establishing women’s higher education in America and elevating it to a level equitable to that available to men. In 1837, after teaching for more than 20 years, Lyon founded Mount Holyoke Female Seminary and served as its president for the rest of her life. She made the school unlike other women’s schools at the time by developing a curriculum with science, mathematics, history, and Latin. Many graduates of the school (now called Mount Holyoke College) then followed Lyon’s example and extended education to other women by starting schools elsewhere in the country and the world.
Issued: 1987

Julia Ward Howe
Julia Ward Howe is best known for writing the words for “The Battle Hymn of the Republic,” the Union’s anthem during the Civil War and still one of the country’s great patriotic songs. Before the war, Howe helped her husband publish the antislavery newspaper The Commonwealth, and during the war she worked with the U.S. Sanitary Commission, an organization that helped save lives by reforming health and sanitary conditions in army camps. In the late 1860s, Howe turned her energies to woman suffrage, helping to found the New England Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association, and in 1870 she became the editor for Woman’s Journal. Howe, who had published several volumes of poetry in the 1850s, continued to write poems and other works throughout her life, and in 1907 she was the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
Issued: 1987

Hazel Wightman
In the 1924 Olympic Games in Paris, 38-year-old Hazel Wightman won gold medals in women’s doubles and mixed doubles, and she considered these victories among her greatest thrills. During her long career, Wightman won dozens of tennis titles in singles, doubles, and mixed doubles competition, including U.S. championships in all three categories for three consecutive years from 1909 to 1911, and winning her last national title, in doubles, at the age of 56. She is credited with developing the “volley” game of hitting the ball out of the air near the net rather than on a bounce near the baseline, and she helped initiate the annual women’s tennis tournament between the United States and Great Britain, which became known as the Wightman Cup, playing several times and serving as captain for many years. Wightman was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1957.
Issued: 1990

Helene Madison
Helene Madison stood on the top step of the victory stand three times during the 1932 Olympic Games in Los Angeles to receive gold medals in swimming, setting records in each event. Madison set an Olympic record in the 100-meter freestyle and a world record in the 400-meter freestyle, and she helped the U.S. team set another world record in the 4x100-meter freestyle relay. Madison started competing in international swimming events when she was 15 years old, and during her career she set more than a hundred national and world records. In fact, at one point in her career, Madison held all the U.S. records in women’s freestyle swimming - a feat never duplicated.
Issued: 1990

Marianne Moore
Considered one of the finest American poets of the 20th century, Marianne Moore won the Pulitzer Prize, the National Book Award, and the Bollingen Prize from Yale University in 1952 for her work Collected Poems. Moore’s poetry was acclaimed for precise descriptions, concise language, and the ability to create many images and themes from just one item. She used the free-form verse characteristic of modernist poets, and she often used imagery of animals and nature to reflect themes such as courage, patience, and perseverance. Moore also influenced other artists while serving as the editor of the prestigious literary and arts magazine Dial from 1925 to 1929.
Issued: 1990

Ida B. Wells
Ida B. Wells devoted her life to educating people about the appalling aspects of discrimination against women and African Americans. Her first job was as a teacher, but she became a journalist when she started to write about her experiences of suing a railroad company for racial discrimination. Much of her journalism career centered on the antilynching crusade and promoting voting rights for women. In 1909 Wells was a founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and in 1910 she founded the Negro Fellowship League, which provided services to people moving from rural areas to Chicago looking for work. In 1913, Wells founded Illinois’ first suffrage club for African-American women, the Alpha Suffrage Club.
Issued: 1990

Harriet Quimby
In 1911, Harriet Quimby became the first American woman to receive a pilot’s license and, in 1912, the first woman to fly solo across the English Channel. Quimby combined her adventurous spirit with dramatic style, wearing her trademark, self-designed purple satin flying outfit while performing in aviation exhibitions in North America and Europe. She was also a successful and well-known journalist in San Francisco and New York City, and after she became a pilot, she chronicled her flying exploits in many newspaper articles, allowing readers to soar with her. Although Quimby died in an aviation accident, her daring accomplishments encouraged others to also venture into uncharted areas.
Issued: 1991

Fanny Brice
Fanny Brice was one of the most popular vaudevillians with the famous Ziegfeld Follies theatrical shows in the first several decades of the 20th century. As a comedian, Brice performed hilarious satires, parodies, and lampoons of celebrities, and she also created a character named “Baby Snooks,” whose mischievous antics amused audiences in theaters and later on Brice’s own long-running radio show. Brice, whose life is portrayed in the Broadway musical and Hollywood film Funny Girl, could also step out of her comic role and sing passionate, poignant songs such as “My Man” and “Rose of Washington Square.”
Issued: 1991

Dorothy Parker
Dorothy Parker’s wide-ranging literary works include poems, short stories, book and drama reviews, magazine articles, theatrical plays, and screen plays. In 1927, Parker won the prestigious O. Henry Award for her short story “The Big Blonde,” and in 1937 she won an Academy Award for her work on the movie A Star Is Born, both of which depict women facing difficulties. A member of the famed Algonquin Roundtable, an informal group of artistic intellectuals, she had a sarcastic, satirical wit that was bitingly humorous and that often conveyed cynicism and pessimism. In 1959, Parker was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters.
Issued: 1992

Women Support America in World War II
When America’s men left home to join the armed forces during
World War II, millions of women filled the empty posts in factories and other workplaces to sustain the effort required for victory. Images of “Rosie the Riveter,” with rolled-up sleeves and determined gaze, both portrayed and applauded the support provided by American women, who during the war comprised almost one-third of the civilian workforce. The women who answered their country’s call and entered the workforce in unprecedented numbers not only displayed their patriotism and performed vital functions, but they forever changed women’s role in the American labor market.
Issued: 1992 and 1999

Grace Kelly
Crowned a princess of the silver screen because of her beauty and talent, Grace Kelly actually did become royalty when she married Prince Rainier of Monaco in 1956. Beginning her film career in 1951, Kelly starred in classics such as High Noon, Dial M for Murder, Rear Window, and High Society, and she won the Academy Award for Best Actress for The Country Girl. Kelly no longer acted after her marriage, but using her status as a member of Monaco’s royal family as well as a former movie star, she devoted much of her time to raising funds for charitable causes and helping the disadvantaged.
Issued: 1993

Dinah Washington
Born Ruth Jones in 1924, Dinah Washington became one of America’s most popular and versatile singers. She began her career as a gospel singer, established herself as the “queen of the blues,” and also made recordings of jazz, pop, rhythm and blues, and even country songs. Her signature song was “What a Difference a Day Makes.” Unfortunately, her life was tragically cut short when she died after an accidental overdose of prescription medications. Washington was inducted into the International Jazz Hall of Fame in 1996.
Issued: 1993

Patsy Cline
Patsy Cline was in the vanguard of the “Nashville Sound,” a 1950s and 1960s movement that blended traditional country music with a style having a broader popular appeal. Many of her songs, including “Walkin’ After Midnight,” “Crazy,” and “I Fall to Pieces,” became top hits on both the pop and country charts. For three consecutive years, Cline was the nation’s most popular female country music artist, and even her early death in a 1963 plane crash could not diminish her popularity and her influence on other singers. In 1973, Cline was the first solo female performer elected to the Country Music Hall of Fame.
Issued: 1993

Classic Children’s Books
by Women
Classic books in children’s literature include Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, by Kate Douglas Wiggin (1856-1923), Little House on the Prairie, by Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867-1957), and Little Women, by Louisa May Alcott (1832-1888). Wiggins’s tale of Rebecca recounts the adventures of a spirited young girl who is sent to live with two dignified aunts in a New England town. Wilder’s book, which was the basis for a highly successful television series in the 1970s and 1980s, is one in a series based on the author’s childhood experiences on the American frontier. Alcott’s Little Women is a story of four sisters that is loosely based on Alcott’s own family life.
Issued: 1993

Military Medics Treat the Wounded
During World War II, women served as medics and nurses in all branches of the armed forces. Stationed on the front lines in Europe, North Africa, and the Pacific, they provided aid and comfort to the wounded while themselves enduring hardships, deprivation, and enemy fire.
Issued: 1993

Maybelle Addington Carter
Sara Dougherty Carter
Often called “the first family of country music,” The Carter Family included cousins Maybelle and Sara Carter, along with Sara’s husband, A.P. Carter. In 1927, they released their first of more than 300 records, many of which were traditional Appalachian folk songs and gospel hymns, such as “Wildwood Flower” and “Can the Circle Be Unbroken.” Sara’s lead vocals brought a freshness to the songs, and Maybelle (who had married AP’s brother) was an excellent guitarist who developed a unique style of picking and strumming. In the mid-1930s, the group’s popularity spread nationwide when they started playing at a Texas radio station that had a powerful signal reaching up to Canada. Even after the group disbanded in the early 1940s, they continued to influence the evolution of country music as well as the 1960s folk revival, and several of Maybelle’s children and grandchildren became country music stars. In 1970, The Carter Family was the first group inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame.
Issued: 1993

ZaSu Pitts
(ca. 1898-1963)
ZaSu Pitts began her film career as an extra, when she was discovered by Mary Pickford and cast in movies such as Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm. Although Pitts played dramatic roles to much acclaim in the silent films Greed and All Quiet on the Western Front, she is known mostly for comedic roles, often as a flustered scatterbrain with a squeaky-high voice - in fact, Max Fleischer, the creator of the Popeye cartoons, patterned the character Olive Oyl after Pitts. In the 1930s Pitts starred in a series of short comedy films with Thelma Todd, forming one of the few female comedy teams of that era, and she continued her comedy roles in films, on stage, and in television until the 1960s.
Issued: 1994

Clara Bow
In the age of flappers and jazz, movie star Clara Bow became known as the “It Girl” - a red-haired beauty whose large, expressive eyes, alluring vivaciousness, charming sassiness, and natural warmth and wit won men’s attention and influenced women’s fashion and style. In her relatively short career, which began at 16 when she earned a movie role for winning a fan magazine’s beauty contest, Bow made more than 50 films, both “silents” and “talkies,” including 25 in just 2 years. Her popular screen roles as vixens in movies such as Mantrap and It (which provided her with her famous nickname) often belie the range and depth of emotions that are seen in films such as Children of Divorce and Wings, which won the first Academy Award for Best Picture. Bow helped to change women’s roles in the movie industry and influenced the careers of many women actors who followed.
Issued: 1994

Theda Bara
One of the most magnetic stars of the silent film era, Theda Bara became infamous for her portrayals of a femme fatale - a beautiful, seductive woman who lures men to depravity and decadence. In the 1915 film A Fool There Was, Bara starred as the man-destroying woman known only as “the vampire,” giving rise to the term “vamp” to describe a woman who charms men to exploit them. She continued this role in many of her more than 40 films, including Cleopatra, Salome, and Carmen. But Bara’s own favorite roles were those in which she shed this typecast persona and played characters such as the tragic teenager in Romeo and Juliet, a heroic legionnaire in Under Two Flags, and an innocent peasant girl in Kathleen Mavourneen.
Issued: 1994

Ethel Waters
Ethel Waters won acclaim for singing and dramatic performances on radio, television, stage, and screen. Known as “the mother of modern popular singing,” Waters began her career in vaudeville as a singer and dancer and became an acclaimed jazz and pop singer in the 1920s and 1930s, introducing the song “Stormy Weather.” In the 1930s she transitioned into a successful career on Broadway, where in the 1933 production of Irving Berlin’s As Thousands Cheer she is credited with being the first African-American woman to receive equal billing with her white co-stars. She received an Academy Award nomination for the film Pinky in 1949 and a New York Drama Critics’ Award for Member of the Wedding in 1950. In later years, Waters performed religious music for evangelist Billy Graham, making famous the song “His Eye Is on the Sparrow.”
Issued: 1994

Ethel Merman
By the age of 21, Ethel Merman made her way to the Broadway stage, which she would dominate for decades with her big, penetrating voice and brassy, unrestrained style. On first hearing her, George Gershwin cast Merman in his 1930 show Girl Crazy, and her rendition of the song “I Got Rhythm” became an instant hit and vaulted her to stardom overnight. During the next 40 years, she starred in a string of smash Broadway musicals, including Anything Goes, Annie Get Your Gun (based on the life of Annie Oakley and written by Dorothy Fields), Call Me Madam, Gypsy, and Hello Dolly. Merman’s movie career includes There’s No Business Like Show Business, a revue of Irving Berlin tunes featuring the title song that she had made famous on stage.
Issued: 1994

Bessie Smith
(ca. 1894-1937)
“The empress of the blues,” Bessie Smith reigned in the 1920s across the United States and Europe, bringing blues music to audiences of all backgrounds. She started as a street musician in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and toured in her teens with vaudeville star “Ma” Rainey. In 1923, her debut album, Down Hearted Blues, was a huge success, and many critics consider her rendition of “St. Louis Blues” with Louis Armstrong to be one of the finest recordings of the 1920s. Smith recorded more than 100 blues and popular songs, but tragically her life was cut short by an automobile accident in 1937.
Issued: 1994

“Ma” Rainey
Born Gertrude Malissa Nix Pridgett, “Ma” Rainey is considered the “mother of the blues” for her great impact on developing and popularizing the genre in its early years. She first appeared on stage around 1900 in minstrel and vaudeville shows. Later she and her husband, William “Pa” Rainey, formed a song-and-dance act and began to offer audiences a different kind of music - a plaintive sound she dubbed “the blues.” As this new style caught on, Rainey’s fame grew. She recorded 100 songs between 1923 and 1928 for Paramount Records. Early in her career, Rainey befriended, coached, and toured with Bessie Smith, who adopted her mentor’s music style and became a famous blues singer herself. Rainey was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990.
Issued: 1994

Billie Holiday
Born Eleanora Fagan, Billie Holiday was one of the most influential jazz singers of her time and a headline attraction for most of her career. She was a technical and artistic virtuoso, using her voice like an instrument in improvisational solos. Nicknamed “Lady Day,” she brought a distinctive light timbre and graceful phrasing to her music, even when singing popular tunes about heartbreak and despair. In the late 1930s, Holiday’s many solo hits, such as “God Bless the Child” and “Strange Fruit,” became standard tunes for generations of singers to follow.
Issued: 1994

Mildred Bailey
With her sweet, high-pitched, and flexible voice, Mildred Bailey was
one of the most popular female vocalists of the 1930s. In 1929, she
joined the Paul Whiteman orchestra, becoming the first featured female vocalist to tour with a major national dance band, and 3 years later gained fame by recording her signature song, “Rockin’ Chair.” She and husband/xylophonist Red Norvo, together known as “Mr. and Mrs. Swing,” had their own CBS radio program and produced many recordings together. Health problems forced Bailey to retire in the mid-1940s, and after a short return to performing, Bailey died at the age of 44 in 1951.
Issued: 1994

Annie Oakley
Known as “Little Miss Sure Shot,” Annie Oakley could hit a dime in midair from 90 feet and shoot a playing card in half - at 30 paces with the edge toward her. At age 15, Oakley won a shooting competition with well-known marksman Frank Butler, whom she later married. From 1885 to 1902, her stunt-shooting skills made her a leading attraction in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show. When the show toured Europe in 1890, her skill attracted the attention of Crown Prince Wilhelm of Germany, who challenged her to shoot a cigarette out of his hand. True to her reputation, she did so without harming him. Oakley’s life was the basis for the 1946 Broadway musical Annie Get You Gun, which was written by Dorothy Fields and starred Ethel Merman.
Issued: 1994

Nellie Cashman
(ca. 1850-1925)
Known as the “frontier angel,” Irish-born Nellie Cashman made her reputation in the western U.S. and Canada as a successful prospector, businesswoman, and philanthropist. During the Cassiar gold rush in British Columbia in 1875, Cashman and six men loaded sleds with 1,500 pounds of supplies and completed a long journey in heavy snows to a remote mining camp, arriving in time to nurse almost 100 sick miners back to health. She later moved to Tombstone, Arizona, where she opened the town’s first woman-owned business (a restaurant) and became a prominent citizen, building a church and raising money for social welfare and the arts. When her sister died from tuberculosis, Cashman cared for her sister’s five children. When Cashman died, newspapers as far away as the New York Times wrote obituaries citing her good works.
Issued: 1994

Virginia Apgar
Dr. Virginia Apgar was a pioneer in the fields of obstetrics and anesthesiology. She is best known for developing a simple assessment tool that helps delivery-room doctors and nurses evaluate a newborn’s general condition. This method, known as the “Apgar score,” has helped medical professionals worldwide identify infants in need of immediate medical attention. Apgar was also the first female professor of anesthesiology and the first female physician to hold a full professorship in the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. Her 1973 book Is My Baby All Right? served as a guide for parents concerned about possible birth defects in their children.
Issued: 1994

Bessie Coleman
Bessie Coleman was the first African American to receive an international pilot’s license, which she earned in France after being denied entry into flight schools in the United States. She returned to the United States and performed in air shows as a stunt flyer, but refused to appear in shows that denied admission to African Americans. Her goal was to establish a flight school for African Americans, but she died in a plane accident while preparing for a show to raise money for the cause. Although she did not live to realize her dream, she paved the way for many men and women to follow in her footsteps.
Issued: 1995

Marilyn Monroe
Screen legend Marilyn Monroe left a legacy of films, including such box-office hits as Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, How to Marry a Millionaire, The Seven Year Itch, and The Misfits. Born Norma Jean Mortenson (sometimes using the last name “Baker”), Monroe was working in a munitions plant in 1944 when she was photographed for a news story about women in the war effort, and this launched her on a modeling career. Soon the 20th Century Fox movie studio hired her, and after many small parts, she gained fame for her singing and dancing roles. In 1959, she won a Golden Globe award for her comedic role in Some Like It Hot.
Issued: 1995

Mary Chesnut
Confederate diarist Mary Boykin Miller Chesnut wrote one of the finest
literary and historical works of the Civil War. Mary Chesnut’s Civil War, as
the collection of her diaries is known, describes life on her plantation in South Carolina and recounts many key events that occurred in Charleston, South Carolina, and Richmond, Virginia, during the war. Chestnut provided more than just gripping personal observations and experiences - because her husband had been a U.S. senator before the war and a Confederate congressman and aide to Confederate President Jefferson Davis during the war, Chestnut was in a unique position to witness the events of her day and offer valuable insights to the people and workings of the Confederate government.
Issued: 1995

Phoebe Pember
Daughter of a prosperous family from Charleston, South Carolina, Phoebe Yates Levy Pember was one of the first women to enter the previously all-male domain of nursing. After moving to Richmond, Virginia, upon the death of her husband in 1862, Pember was recruited by Mrs. George Randolph, wife of the Confederate secretary of war, to serve as nurse and administrator at Chimborazo Military Hospital, which treated more patients than any other military hospital in the country, North or South. After the war, Pember vividly documented her experiences in her memoir, A Southern Woman’s Story.
Issued: 1995

Alice Hamilton
Dr. Alice Hamilton’s pioneering work in the field of industrial medicine contributed to the passage of early worker’s compensation laws. In the 1902 Chicago typhoid epidemic, Hamilton discovered a connection between improper sewage disposal and disease transmission, and she later noted a relationship between immigrant health problems and unsafe working conditions, including exposure to noxious chemicals. In 1910, she was appointed director of the Illinois Occupational Disease Commission, the first organization of its kind, and in 1919 she became the first female faculty member of Harvard Medical School. Hamilton was a consultant to the U.S. government and the League of Nations, and in 1947 she received the U.S. Public Health Association’s Lasker Award.
Issued: 1995

Ruth Benedict
Ruth Benedict is considered one of the pre-eminent anthropologists of the 20th century. She received her Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1923 and taught there for many years, becoming the first female full professor in the Department of Anthropology in 1948. Her formative fieldwork was conducted among the American Indians of the desert Southwest, and during World War II she analyzed Japanese culture as a consultant to the Office of War Information. Based in part on this work, Benedict published two best-sellers - Patterns of Culture, an introduction to the field of anthropology, and The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, an exploration of Japanese culture from the 7th century through the mid-20th century.
Issued: 1995

Alice Paul
Alice Paul was one of the primary architects of the campaign for women’s right to vote. With a Ph.D. in social work from the University of Pennsylvania and training in civil disobedience from British suffrage leaders, she founded the National Woman’s Party in the United States and organized massive pro-suffrage demonstrations, including one that stole the limelight from Woodrow Wilson’s inauguration in 1913. For the next 7 years, National Woman’s Party leaders and others picketed outside the White House and were jailed - Paul herself was imprisoned three times - until in 1920 the 19th amendment granting women the right to vote was added to the U.S. Constitution. In the 1920s, Paul earned three law degrees, and for the next 50 years, she strove to protect women from discrimination, working to include equal gender rights in the United Nations Charter and 1964 Civil Rights Act, and authoring and promoting the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Issued: 1995

Jacqueline Cochran
In 1953, Jacqueline Cochran became the first woman to break the sound barrier. This pioneering aviator was also the first woman to participate in the prestigious Bendix air race across the U.S. (In 1935), to win the Bendix race (in 1938), to pilot a bomber across the Atlantic, and to serve as president of the Fédération Internationale Aéronautique. As director of the Women’s Air Force Service Pilots during World War II, she trained other women aviators. Cochran was also a businesswoman - she had founded a cosmetics company before becoming a pilot - and a writer, publishing her autobiography, The Stars at Noon, in 1954. At the time of her death in 1980, Cochran held more speed, altitude, and distance records than any other male or female pilot in aviation history.
Issued: 1996

Dorothy Fields
In a career spanning more than 40 years, Dorothy Fields entertained millions with her lyrics for great American songs, including “On the Sunny Side of the Street,” “Big Spender,” and “If My Friends Could See Me Now.” In 1936, she won an Academy Award for best original song for “The Way You Look Tonight,” the hit tune from Swing Time with Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers. In the 1940s, Fields conceived of and wrote the story line for Annie Get Your Gun, a smash Broadway musical portraying the life of Annie Oakley and featuring Ethel Merman and music by Irving Berlin. Fields was nominated for four Tony Awards, and in 1959 she shared in the award for best musical for Redhead.
Issued: 1996

Georgia O’Keeffe
Georgia O’Keeffe is regarded as one of the leading American artists of the 20th century, best known for her dramatic and sensual use of color and light in landscapes and cityscapes, and for close-ups of flowers and clouds. Recognizing the genius in her first abstract drawings, well-known photographer and art critic Alfred Stieglitz became her benefactor and promoter. They married in 1924. The view from their apartment in New York City and the natural environment of his Lake George estate became the subjects of her paintings. O’Keeffe also had a lifetime fascination with the American Southwest, where she lived for 35 years after Stieglitz’s death. The region’s beautiful but often barren landscape inspired some of her most famous paintings. O’Keeffe lived to see a great re-birth of interest in her work in the 1970s that continues to this day. The stamp reproduces her 1927 painting Red Poppy.
Issued: 1996

Breast Cancer Awareness and Research
Breast cancer affects one out of eight women in the U.S., making it the second most common form of cancer in American women, but early detection and treatment can greatly increase the survival rate of those affected. In 1998, the Postal Service issued its first “semipostal” stamp, with revenues exceeding the cost of First-Class Mail rates being used to further breast cancer research conducted by the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Defense Medical Research Program. Through 2002, the Postal Service had sold more than 421 million of these semipostal stamps, thereby raising almost $30 million for research.
Issued: 1996 and 1998

Lily Pons
French-American opera singer Lily Pons was famous for her coloratura soprano voice and her technical skill. She studied piano at the Paris Conservatory before making her formal operatic debut in Lamké in 1928 in Mulhouse, France. From the moment in 1931 that she made her American debut in Lucia di Lammermore at New York City’s Metropolitan Opera, Pons was an immediate success. For nearly 30 years, Pons remained with the Metropolitan and delighted music lovers both on the opera stage and also in three films, including That Girl From Paris.
Issued: 1997

Rosa Ponselle
While singing in vaudeville in 1921, Rosa Ponselle was discovered by tenor Enrico Caruso and became the leading dramatic soprano at the New York Metropolitan Opera, debuting as Leonora opposite Caruso’s Don Alvaro in La Forza del Destino. Ponselle remained at the Metropolitan for nearly two decades. Her exceptional voice earned her a wide range of operatic roles in productions such as Verdi’s Don Carlos, Spontini’s Vestale, and Weber’s Oberon. In 1927, Ponselle assumed the title role in Bellini’s highly acclaimed Norma.
Issued: 1997

Gibson Girl
Created by illustrator Charles Dana Gibson, the “Gibson Girl” set the fashion for the ideal American woman from about 1895 to 1914. Aloof yet accessible, the Gibson Girl was self-confident, independent, and feminine. She was equally at home on the tennis court or golf course as in the tea parlor. With an hour-glass figure and her long hair piled gracefully atop her head, the Gibson Girl was the epitome of elegance and American free spirit. Illustrations of the Gibson Girl adorned the covers of popular magazines such as Life and Harper’s.
Issued: 1998

Mary Breckinridge
Nurse-midwife Mary Breckinridge helped to modernize health care in rural America. Breckinridge traveled to Europe during World War I to volunteer with the American Committee for Devastated France. There she studied under and was inspired by the skill and professionalism of the European nurse-midwives. Appalled by the high maternal death rate in America, Breckinridge founded the Frontier Nursing Service (FNS) in Kentucky in 1925. Within the first 5 years, she and her network of trained midwives reached hundreds of Appalachian families, delivering babies and providing prenatal care and nutrition counseling. By 1930, the FNS had six rural outposts. Since its inception, more than 64,000 rural women, children, and families have used FNS services.
Issued: 1998

Margaret Mead
Anthropologist, professor, and writer Margaret Mead explored gender roles, women’s issues, and the effect of culture on the behavior and personalities of children and adolescents. Her findings were based on field research she conducted in Samoa, Bali, and New Guinea. Mead applied principles of economics and psychology to anthropology to demonstrate how modern society can look to primitive cultures to better understand its behaviors. A prolific writer, Mead published 44 books and more than 1,000 articles. Her best-selling first book, Coming of Age in Samoa, explains how American parents could mitigate rebellious adolescent behavior by studying Samoan child-rearing techniques. From 1926 until her death, Mead worked in the Department of Anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History, serving in various capacities including curator of ethnology and curator emeritus.
Issued: 1998

Popular Dances of the 20th Century
The dance styles of the Charleston, the jitterbug, and disco reflect advances in women’s social freedom in the 20th century and stand as symbols for their generations. The 1920s gave rise to the exuberant Charleston and a new era for women - when flappers shed their corsets, shortened their skirts, bobbed their hair, and kicked up their heels in new-found freedom from Victorian-era social strictures. Evolving from Swing music in the 1930s, the jitterbug and its fast-paced acrobatics underwent various stylistic changes over the years, with a toned-down version being popularized on the 1950s TV show American Bandstand. In the 1970s, the disco craze paralleled a time of massive social change, when women rebelled against conventions and explored nontraditional roles throughout society.
Issued: 1998 and 1999

America Survives the Depression
By 1933, unemployment in the U.S. had skyrocketed to 25 percent, and the average employee wage was 60 percent less than it had been in 1929. During the Depression, the percentage of women in the workforce rose as wives tried to supplement their husbands’ income to provide for families. Dorothea Lange’s 1936 photograph of Native American Florence Thompson Owens, a 32-year-old migrant worker with seven children, symbolizes both the concern and courage of American women as they tried to survive the hard times of the Great Depression. (See also Dorothea Lange, page 45.)
Issued: 1998

Mahalia Jackson
Full-throated soprano Mahalia Jackson, called the “queen of gospel music,” helped make this music genre popular to a secular audience. Through performances on radio and television, she brought gospel music to diverse listeners in the U.S. And abroad, and her 1958 gospel hit “He’s Got the Whole World in His Hands” was one of the best-selling songs of the year. Jackson’s audiences included Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy as well as the king and queen of Denmark. At the 1963 March on Washington, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. requested that Jackson sing “I Been ’Buked and I Been Scorned” just before he delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. Jackson also sang at King’s funeral in 1968. In 1972, Jackson received a posthumous Lifetime Achievement Grammy.
Issued: 1998

Roberta Martin
Roberta Martin, the gifted and versatile leader of the Roberta Martin Singers, was blessed with a glorious contralto voice and was also an accomplished pianist, composer, and music publisher. Always in demand, the Roberta Martin Singers performed for audiences throughout the U.S. And Europe. Martin dedicated her life to gospel music, recording some 100 compositions and 280 gospel songs. Among Martin’s most popular recordings were “Try Jesus, He Satisfies,” “Amazing Grace,” and “If You Pray.”
Issued: 1998

Clara Ward
Clara Ward was the creative force behind the Ward Singers (later the Clara Ward Singers), often acknowledged as America’s greatest gospel group. Ward was a celebrated and accomplished composer, pianist, singer, and arranger, and she and her group helped transform the gospel genre by using creative stage arrangements, wearing colorful costumes, and playing at unconventional venues. A 1957 performance at the Newport Jazz Festival introduced the Clara Ward Singers - and gospel music - to a secular audience. Her song “Surely God Is Able” became one of the highest selling gospel records of all time.
Issued: 1998

Sister Rosetta Tharpe
The daughter of a spiritual singer, Sister Rosetta Tharpe established a reputation as a singer-evangelist in Chicago before moving to Harlem, where she became known for her electrifying performances in theaters, nightclubs, and churches. A brilliant guitarist and gospel singer, Tharpe performed in swing orchestras with musical greats Benny Goodman and Count Basie. She also recorded many popular vocal duets, including “Up Above My Head” with Marie Knight in 1947.
Issued: 1998

Madam C.J. Walker
Born Sarah Breedlove, the daughter of former slaves, Madam CJ Walker became a beauty products pioneer and one of the nation’s first female millionaires. In the early 1900s, using her husband’s name (Charles Joseph Walker), she developed a very successful business manufacturing hair goods and preparations, and her company eventually became one of the country’s largest businesses owned by an African American. Walker also became one of the era’s leading African-American philanthropists and political activists, strongly supporting education, charitable institutions, political rights, and economic opportunities for African Americans and women.
Issued: 1998

Lila Wallace
Lila Wallace and her husband, DeWitt, founded the world-famous Reader’s Digest in 1922. Today, 15 million people worldwide subscribe to Reader’s Digest, which appears in 48 editions and 19 languages. The Wallaces matched their extraordinary publishing success with remarkable generosity, donating millions to charitable causes in education, arts, and music. In 1972 they were awarded the U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom for their contributions to the print medium, business, and philanthropy. To date, the Wallace Reader’s Digest Funds have awarded nearly $2 billion in grants.
Issued: 1998

Originating in Italy centuries ago, ballet has become an internationally acclaimed dance form that combines flexibility, balance, strength, and grace. Most dance roles were played by men until 1681, when French danseuse Mademoiselle de Lafontaine performed in Le Triomphe de l’Amour. In the 18th century, dancer Marie Camargo introduced shortened skirts and slippers that allowed women greater freedom of movement to do jumps traditionally reserved for men. During the 19th century, numerous female ballet dancers achieved fame, including Carlotta Grisi, the first woman to dance Giselle, and Marie Taglioni, whose 1832 performance in La Sylphide inaugurated the Romantic Ballet era. Great ballerinas of the 20th century include classic Russian ballet dancer Ana Pavlova and dancer-choreographer Martha Graham, who influenced the modern dance style of the 1930s. Preeminent modern-day dancers include Judith Jamison, known for her 1971 solo Cry, a tribute to African-American women, and Balanchine protégé Suzanne Farrell.
Issued: 1998

Emily Post’s Etiquette
Born into an affluent and socially prominent Baltimore family, Emily Post defined modern good manners and conduct for Americans of all classes. Her books, radio programs, and syndicated newspaper column, “Social Problems,” set the standard for etiquette throughout the 20th century. In 1922, Post published Etiquette: The Blue Book of Social Usage, which quickly became a bestseller and is now in its 16th edition. In 1946, Post founded the Emily Post Institute, which today continues to measure decorum and social graces in American society.
Issued: 1998

Lynn Fontanne
American actor and comedian Lynn Fontanne and her husband, Alfred Lunt, formed a captivating couple in entertainment. Their magic and versatility as a team led them to perform on stage and in film together from 1924 to 1960. Some of their best-known stage works include The Guardsman, Design for Living, There Shall Be No Light, and The Visit. In 1931, they appeared together in the film adaptation of The Guardsman, for which they received Academy Award nominations.
Issued: 1999

Ayn Rand
Russian-American novelist Ayn Rand, who immigrated to the U.S. In 1926, became a well-known author after the success of her best-selling novels Fountainhead in 1943 and Atlas Shrugged in 1957. Raised in Russia during the Bolshevik revolution, Rand witnessed the Communist government confiscate her father’s business and leave the family impoverished. As a student, she watched as Communists took over the University of Petrograd and prohibited free speech. These experiences led Rand to despise collectivist political systems and to develop her own philosophy called “objectivism,” which embodies principles of capitalism, rational self-interest, and reason. Her beliefs about independent thought and individualism earned her a large following that continues to thrive today.
Issued: 1999

Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball was a star of radio, stage, television, and film who endeared herself to generations of fans worldwide with her wit, charm, and amazing ability for physical comedy. Known as “America’s queen of comedy,” Ball is best remembered for her portrayal of Lucy Ricardo in the 1950s TV series I Love Lucy. Teaming Ball with her real-life husband, Desi Arnaz, the enormously popular show broke new ground in broadcast shows by depicting an American wife with a Cuban husband and having episodes based on the wife’s pregnancy. Ball and Arnaz had cofounded Desilu Productions to run their show, and when she took over the company in the early 1960s, she became the only woman to own and run a Hollywood production company at that time. The company also produced many other popular television series, including Ball’s later comedies The Lucy Show and Here’s Lucy and classics such as Make Room for Daddy, The Untouchables, and Star Trek.
Issued: 1999 and 2001

Women’s Rights Movement
In Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848, some 300 reformers drafted a declaration calling for equal rights for women in areas such as suffrage, property ownership, child custody, education, and employment. Despite public criticism, the movement gained momentum, and American women achieved several milestones - for instance, New York and other states began to expand women’s rights to own real property, and in 1920, the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted suffrage to women. The movement gained increased momentum in the 1960s, and women secured government protections in areas such as employment. Backed by the political clout of grassroots and national groups such as the National Organization for Women, the women’s rights movement continues to fight for the equality of women in the United States and abroad.
Issued: 1999

Patricia Roberts Harris
Patricia Roberts Harris had a long, distinguished career as a lawyer,
educator, and public administrator. Harris’s career in education centered on Howard University, where she served as a full professor and as dean of the
law school. She later served in Luxembourg as the first African-American
U.S. ambassador and as an alternate delegate to the United Nations General Assembly and Economic Commission for Europe. Harris also became the first African-American woman appointed as a member of a presidential cabinet, serving as secretary of both the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Department of Health and Human Services.
Issued: 2000

Louise Nevelson
Considered one of the most gifted sculptors of the 20th century, Louise Nevelson produced an impressive and influential body of work during her 50-year career. Inspired by cubist, surrealist, American Indian, pre-Columbian, and African art, Nevelson introduced a new style of sculpture. Her work consisted of geometrically carved, recycled, and painted wood objects arranged in stacked boxes to form sculptural walls. The Postal Service issued a five-stamp series featuring Nevelson’s works, including this stamp showing a detail from her sculpture titled “Silent Music I.”
Issued: 2000

Hattie W. Caraway
Arkansas Senator Hattie W. Caraway achieved several political “firsts,” including being the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate. Caraway had initially been appointed to that body on November 13, 1931, a few days after the death of her husband, Senator Thaddeus Caraway. On January 12, 1932, she won a special election to fill the remaining months of his term and was subsequently elected to two 6-year terms. In 1933, Caraway became the first woman to chair a Senate committee (the Committee on Enrolled Bills) and in 1943 was the first woman in Congress to cosponsor the proposed Equal Rights Amendment. After leaving the Senate, Caraway was appointed by President Roosevelt to the Federal Employees’ Compensation Commission and to the Employees’ Compensation Appeal Board.
Issued: 2001

Frida Kahlo
Best known for her striking self-portraits, Mexican painter Frida Kahlo was influenced by pre-Columbian art and Mexican folk art. Her works embody the pride of Mexico’s national patriotic movement, called “Mexicanidad,” that pulsed throughout the country following the Mexican Revolution of the early 20th century. This sense of Mexican patriotism in Kahlo’s work has significantly influenced Chicana artists in the United States. While a teenager, Kahlo sustained serious injuries in a bus accident, which would affect her health for the rest of her life. Triumph and suffering in her own life and in the lives of women in general are recurrent themes in Kahlo’s paintings. Since the mid-1970s, she has been a role model for women in the Mexican-American and feminist communities.
Issued: 2001

Neysa McMein
Neysa McMein was one of the most popular and productive American illustrators in the 1920s and 1930s. As a young woman, McMein pursued multiple artistic avenues, including painting, acting, and music. In her mid-twenties, after moving to New York City, she focused on creating illustrations for magazine covers and commercial advertisements. She created all the covers for McCall’s from 1923 to 1937 - the stamp replicates a portrait that appeared as a McCall’s cover in 1932. Perhaps her most famous commercial design was the 1936 portrait of Betty Crocker, the fictional character that General Mills used to promote its baking products. In the late 1930s, McMein became increasingly involved in portraiture, and her subjects included U.S. Presidents Harding and Hoover, actor Charlie Chaplin, and dirigible designer Ferdinand von Zeppelin.
Issued: 2001

Rose O’Neill
Rose O’Neill was a self-trained artist who invented the whimsical, cupid-like Kewpies in 1909 while illustrating for Ladies’ Home Journal. O’Neill included these cute characters in many stories that she wrote and illustrated for magazines, comic strips, and children’s books, including The Kewpies and Dottie Darling and The Kewpies and the Runaway Baby. She also used them in advertisements and other commercial products, such as Jell-O and the Kewpies, a famous recipe booklet from 1915. O’Neill was also a talented sculptor, novelist, and poet, and she had several exhibitions of her more serious artistic works in Paris and New York.
Issued: 2001

Jessie Willcox Smith
Illustrator Jessie Willcox Smith specialized in nostalgic images of children engaged in everyday activities. The postage stamp replicates her illustration The First Lesson, which appeared on the December 1904 cover of Ladies' Home Journal. Her work appeared on many magazines, and from December 1917 to March 1933, Smith created every cover - nearly 200 - for Good Housekeeping. Smith is also remembered for her enchanting illustrations of classic fairy tale characters including Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, and Little Red Riding Hood, for illustrating children’s books such as Robert Louis Stevenson’s A Child’s Garden of Verses and Charles Kingsley’s The Water-Babies, and for the beautiful illustrations in her own famous book The Jessie Willcox Smith Mother Goose.
Issued: 2001

Imogen Cunningham
A photographer of exceptional sensibility and one of the founders of modernist photography, Imogen Cunningham is best known for her portraiture and her black-and-white photographic studies of plants and the human form. In the 1920s, Cunningham began making sharply focused, realistic photographs, which was a departure from the prevailing romantic pictorial style. During the 1930s, she was a photographer for Vanity Fair. Replicated on the postage stamp is Cunningham’s Age and Its Symbols, a 1958 work compelling for its revealing personal intimacy.
Issued: 2002

Gertrude Käsebier
Eminent portrait photographer Gertrude Käsebier pioneered an evocative, soft-focus “painterly” style that established her as a guiding force in the pictorialist movement. Her best-known images are those of mothers and children - the one replicated on the postage stamp is her 1899 work Blessed Art Thou Among Women, a sensitive portrayal of children’s author Agnes Lee and her daughter Peggy. In a stylistic shift, Käsebier helped found Photo-Secession, a group that promoted photography as a unique art form with aesthetic qualities not found in painting. Käsebier’s work also includes portraits of Native Americans, frontiersman Buffalo Bill Cody, and sculptor Auguste Rodin.
Issued: 2002

Dorothea Lange
A deeply compassionate documentary photographer, Dorothea Lange is best known for her compelling pictures of the unemployed and uprooted victims of the Great Depression. With an empathetic eye, she recorded not only their impoverished circumstances but also their fortitude and spirit. Featured on the postage stamp is a 1935 work titled Ditched, Stalled, and Stranded, San Joaquin Valley, California, which reflects Lange’s intimate portrait style. Another of her photographs, Migrant Mother (see page 37), is a classic Depression-era image that captures its subject’s inner strength in the face of hardship.
Issued: 2002

Nellie Bly
Intrepid New York World reporter Nellie Bly was one of the first female investigative journalists. Born Elizabeth Cochran, she changed her name to Nellie Bly, the title character of a Stephen Collins Foster song, at the request of her managing editor, who believed it improper for women to write publicly using their real names. Working undercover, Bly posed as an inmate and a patient to expose the poor conditions of a prison and a women’s asylum in late 19th-century New York City. Inspired by Jules Verne’s fictional story Around the World in 80 Days, in 1889 Bly traveled around the world - via boat, train, rickshaw, and burro - in just 72 days, setting a world record and achieving worldwide fame with her book about her adventure.
Issued: 2002

Marguerite Higgins
Assigned to the U.S. Seventh Army in 1944, New York Herald Tribune journalist Marguerite Higgins was with the Allied troops when they liberated the Dachau and Buchenwald concentration camps. In 1947, the Tribune promoted Higgins to be its Berlin bureau chief, and 3 years later she was transferred to Japan to head the newspaper’s Far East bureau. Higgins covered the Korean War from the front lines, and her accounts won her a 1951 Pulitzer Prize for international reporting - she was the first woman to receive that award - and led to her book War in Korea: The Report of a Woman Combat Correspondent, a 1951 bestseller Higgins’s daring coverage of War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War advanced the cause of equal access for female war correspondents.
Issued: 2002

Ethel L. Payne
An internationally recognized writer and commentator, Ethel L. Payne was a syndicated columnist and reporter for the Chicago Defender, one of the leading African-American newspapers in the United States. At a time when the media often avoided racial issues, Payne reported on and crusaded against the unjust treatment of minorities. As a war correspondent in Vietnam, she wrote about the segregation of African-American troops from white troops. In 1972, Payne became the first female African-American commentator to be employed by a national network (CBS) and to receive accreditation as a White House correspondent. In her honor, the prestigious annual Ethel L. Payne International Award for Excellence in Journalism was established in 1998.
Issued: 2002

Ida M. Tarbell
Ida M. Tarbell began her journalism career at McClure’s by writing respected biographical accounts of Napoléon Bonaparte and Abraham Lincoln. But Tarbell is best known for her painstakingly researched exposé on John D. Rockefeller’s powerful Standard Oil Company. Considered to be one of the greatest journalistic works of the 20th century, her exposé was originally published by McClure’s as a 19-part series starting in 1902, and in 1904 it was printed as a book titled The History of the Standard Oil Company. Tarbell’s work was the catalyst leading to the U.S. Supreme Court’s landmark 1911 decision to break up the Standard Oil monopoly. In 1922, the New York Times named Tarbell one of America’s most admired women.
Issued: 2002

Zora Neale Hurston
American writer, folklorist, and anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston was one of America’s most original artists. Hurston spent her early years in Eatonville, Florida, which was the first incorporated all-black town in the United States. In the 1920s, after studying writing at Howard University, Hurston moved to New York City and wrote stories, plays, and essays, contributing to the Harlem Renaissance along with other African-American artists. Hurston also studied anthropology at Barnard College and Columbia University, and she conducted field research on African-American culture in several southern states and in the Caribbean. Based on this research, Hurston wrote several anthropological books, including Mules and Men (1935), and the vibrant folklore, mysticism, and dialect she encountered in her studies inspired much of her fiction. Her best known novel is Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937), the story of an African-American woman who struggles against adversity and prevails by embracing self-sufficiency as the route to self-fulfillment. In later years, though, Hurston suffered setbacks in her career and in her personal life, and she died impoverished. But in the 1970s, a new generation of African-American scholars and writers, including Alice Walker, rediscovered and repopularized many of her writings. In Hurston’s honor, the city of Eatonville, which had a strong influence in her works, hosts an annual festival celebrating African-American arts and culture.
Issued: 2003

Audrey Hepburn
As an actress, Audrey Hepburn won fame for her elegance and grace, and later in life, she earned respect and admiration as a goodwill ambassador for UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). Hepburn first garnered attention starring in Gigi on Broadway in 1951, and in 1954 she won a Tony Award for Ondine. She is best remembered for her 1950s and 1960s films, including such classics as Roman Holiday (for which she won an Academy Award), Sabrina, The Nun’s Story, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, Charade, My Fair Lady, and Wait Until Dark. From 1988 until her death in 1993, Hepburn worked tirelessly to help improve the lives of children, especially in war-torn areas - Hepburn knew firsthand of such troubles, for she spent her teenage years in Nazi-occupied Holland, where she and her family faced starvation, disease, and death. For her efforts, Hepburn received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and an Academy Award for her humanitarian work. In 2002, UNICEF dedicated in her honor a statue entitled “The Spirit of Audrey.”
Issued: 2003