2-21.1 Definitions

  1. Small business — A business, including an affiliate (see #2. below), that is independently owned and operated, is not dominant in producing or performing the goods or services being purchased, and has no more than 500 employees, unless a different size standard has been established by the Small Business Administration (see 13 CFR 121, particularly for different size standards for airline, railroad, and construction companies). For subcontracts of $50,000 or less, a subcontractor having no more than 500 employees qualifies as a small business without regard to other factors.
  2. Affiliates — Businesses connected by the fact that one controls or has the power to control the other, or a third party controls or has the power to control both. Factors such as common ownership, common management, and contractual relationships must be considered. Franchise agreements are not considered evidence of affiliation if the franchisee has a right to profit in proportion to its ownership and bears the risk of loss or failure.
  3. Dominant — Being a controlling or major influence in a market in which a number of businesses are primarily engaged. Factors such as business volume; number of employees; financial resources; competitiveness; ownership or control of materials, processes, patents, and license agreements; facilities; sales territory; and nature of the business must be considered.
  4. Minority business — A minority business is a concern that is at least 51 percent owned by, and whose management and daily business operations are controlled by, one or more members of a socially and economically disadvantaged minority group, namely U.S. citizens who are Black Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, or Asian Americans. (Native Americans are American Indians, Eskimos, Aleuts, and Native Hawaiians. Asian Americans are U.S. citizens whose origins are Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean, Samoan, Laotian, Kampuchea (Cambodian), Taiwanese, in the U.S. Trust Territories of the pacific Islands or in the Indian subcontinent.)
  5. Woman-owned business — A concern at least 51 percent of which is owned by a woman (or women) who is a U.S. citizen, controls the firm by exercising the power to make policy decisions, and operates the business by being actively involved in day-to-day management.
  6. Number of employees — Average employment (including domestic and foreign affiliates), based on the number of people employed (whether full-time, part-time, or temporary), during each pay period of the preceding 12 months, or, if the business has been in existence less than 12 months, during each pay period of its existence.